The pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis) – also called the common pauraque to distinguish it from similar species – is a nightjar species, one of two birds in the genus Nyctidromus. It breeds in the subtropical and tropical of the New World, and except for northernmost birds it is largely resident all year round.
The breeding range of the common pauraque extends from southern Texas to the lower Paraná River region. Most populations are all-year residents, although the U.S. breeders (N. a. merrilli) may winter in eastern Mexico.
At the southern end of its range, subspecies N. a. derbyanus ranges from central and southern Brazil into the adjacent parts of Bolivia, and through Paraguay into Argentina and Uruguay. Even the southernmost birds seem to be nonmigratory, but at the limit of its range the species is only patchily distributed. For example, it is not recorded to breed in Entre Ríos Province (Argentina) and it is scarce in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); about its presence in Uruguay likewise little is known, except that a population of some size is found along the Yaguarón River in the Cuchilla de Mangrullo region.
It is found in open woodland/grassland habitats, but also scrubland and crop fields. This species has long legs (by nightjar standards) with bare tarsi, and is more terrestrial than most of its relatives. If disturbed, it will sometimes run rather than fly, and it frequently rests on roads and tracks. In general it prefers mixed habitat which offers densely vegetated hiding places – ideally forest – for the day, as well as open landscape – perhaps even rivers or wetlands – to hunt at night. The pauraque is nocturnal, like other nightjars, and starts to fly at dusk. Like its relatives, it feeds on insects caught in flight, usually by flycatching from a low perch, but also by foraging over open ground.
No nest is made; the two elongated and elliptical pinkish eggs are placed upon the bare ground or leaf litter. Not globally threatened, it is considered a Species of Least Concern by the IUCN. Being an adaptable species that will tolerate human disturbance of habitat well, the pauraque has actually benefitted from limited deforestation. Logging creates areas of low and secondary growth in which the birds are able to hunt more efficiently. However, it will of course abandon heavily built-up or clear-cut locales, and, in addition, it is very vulnerable to predation by feral dogs and cats, disappearing from areas where these pests are abundant.